A Mixed-methods Process Evaluation for Self-Acupressure for Knee Osteoarthritis in Middle-aged and Older-aged Adults

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingConference article published in proceeding or bookAcademic researchpeer-review


Background: Although the effectiveness of self-administered acupressure had been widely examined, patients’ experiences and perspectives of the training process had been under-studied. This study aimed to explore the process, mechanisms, facilitators and barriers when performing self-administered acupressure.

Method: This process evaluation was informed by the UK Medical Research Council guideline and embedded in a randomized controlled trial of self-administered acupressure in middle-aged and older-aged adults with knee osteoarthritis. This mixed-methods study included 47 questionnaires on intervention acceptability, 38 logbooks on intervention adherence, six focus group interviews with participants who had just completed the 2-week acupressure training course and those who had completed the 12-week self-administered acupressure intervention. Quantitative data were presented using descriptive statistics and qualitative data were analyzed thematically before integrated during the analysis.

Result: Participant survey showed satisfied acceptability towards the contents of the training course, scored 9.6 out of 10. Logbook data indicated that 70% of participants had completed the self-administration at home with an average duration of 17.25 minutes. Focus group interview data showed that participants who had observable effectiveness of self-acupressure and perceived positive impact of knee OA had better adherence to the intervention. Participants’ narratives showed that confidence in performing self-acupressure techniques was linked to their beliefs that achieving “sensation” on acupoints or applying greater strength yield a better effect. Training materials found helpful in performing self-acupressure but yet enough to improve the confidence of some participants. Perceived barriers such as triggering lower back pain during self-administration and difficulties in locating acupoints due to deformity of knees were identified. Knee tube with marked acupoints and methods to relieve pain or fatigue after self-administration were suggested to be included in the future.

Conclusion: The findings suggest the need to overcome the barriers and to
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSAR International Research Conference 2021
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jun 2021


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