A Lyapunov optimization approach for green cellular networks with hybrid energy supplies

Y. Mao, Jun Zhang, K.B. Letaief

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

82 Citations (Scopus)


© 1983-2012 IEEE.Powering cellular networks with renewable energy sources via energy harvesting (EH) have recently been proposed as a promising solution for green networking. However, with intermittent and random energy arrivals, it is challenging to provide satisfactory quality of service (QoS) in EH networks. To enjoy the greenness brought by EH while overcoming the instability of the renewable energy sources, hybrid energy supply (HES) networks that are powered by both EH and the electric grid have emerged as a new paradigm for green communications. In this paper, we will propose new design methodologies for HES green cellular networks with the help of Lyapunov optimization techniques. The network service cost, which addresses both the grid energy consumption and achievable QoS, is adopted as the performance metric, and it is optimized via base station assignment and power control (BAPC). Our main contribution is a low-complexity online algorithm to minimize the long-term average network service cost, namely, the Lyapunov optimization-based BAPC (LBAPC) algorithm. One main advantage of this algorithm is that the decisions depend only on the instantaneous side information without requiring distribution information of channels and EH processes. To determine the network operation, we only need to solve a deterministic per-time slot problem, for which an efficient inner-outer optimization algorithm is proposed. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is shown to be asymptotically optimal via rigorous analysis. Finally, sample simulation results are presented to verify the theoretical analysis as well as validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Original languageEnglish
Article number7274642
Pages (from-to)2463-2477
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • base station assignment
  • energy harvesting
  • Green communications
  • hybrid energy supply
  • Lyapunov optimization
  • power control
  • QoS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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