A high-frame rate duplex ultrasound biomicroscopy for small animal imaging in vivo

Lei Sun, Xiaochen Xu, William D. Richard, Ching Feng, Jeffrey A. Johnson, K. Kirk Shung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

41 Citations (Scopus)


Much of the current knowledge of human cardiovascular pathologies and treatment strategies has been gained from understanding the cardiac physiologies and functions in small animal models, such as mice, rats, and zebrafish. In this paper, we present the development of a high-frame-rate duplex ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) capable of B-mode imaging and pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler measurement for in vivo cardiovascular investigation in small animals. A frame rate of 200 frames per second (fps) was accomplished at a view of 5 mm × 8 mm, using a novel high-speed sector probe and specially designed lightweight transducers. In a reduced lateral view of 1.2 mm, a frame rate of 400 fps was achieved to examine more detailed cardiac motion. The UBM utilized transducers with different center frequencies (40-75 MHz) and geometries, which made it useful for various applications in small animal cardiac imaging. The highest spatial resolution the UBM achieved was 25 μm × 56 μm. In addition, the image-guided PW Doppler implemented in the UBM demonstrated the detection of the velocity of a moving wire as low as 0.1 mm/s, and flow in a polyimide tube as small as 200 μm in diameter. Furthermore, the UBM achieved a 15-μV minimal detectable signal and a 60-dB dynamic range using a low-cost PCB-based design. Finally, sample in vivo cardiac images of mouse and zebrafish hearts were given. These results showed that the UBM integrated with B-mode and PW Doppler is useful to investigate the pathophysiological mechanism in the cardiovascular studies.
Original languageEnglish
Article number15
Pages (from-to)2039-2049
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2008


  • Cardiac imaging
  • Duplex
  • High frame rate
  • Small animal
  • Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM)
  • Zebrafish

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering

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