A four-disc version of the Tower of London for clinical use

J.R. Tunstall, J.G. O'Gorman, Ho Keung David Shum

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


© 2014 The British Psychological Society.Three studies are reported on the development of a four-disc version of the Tower of London test of planning ability. The first (n = 138) involved the selection of items based on rational and empirical criteria to provide a short test of graded difficulty suitable for use with children and clinical populations. The second study (n = 480) checked the properties of the 10-item test on a new sample and in addition examined the internal consistency and factor structure of the test. The third study (n = 61) examined the test-retest reliability of the test over a period of 1 month. The difficulty level of the test remained relatively stable from sample to sample and was sensitive to linear trend in performance from age 5 years up to 30 years. Total score did not reflect the action of a single underlying construct but rather appeared to index a number of factors. Scores were reasonably stable over the 1-month period studied, at least for the children's sample employed. The four-disc version is a promising method of assessing planning in children and adolescents in clinical situations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)116-129
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Neuropsychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Executive Functions
  • Frontal Lobe
  • Neuropsychological Assessment
  • Planning
  • Tower of London (TOL)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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