A four-category scheme for coding and assessing the level of reflection in written work

David Kember, Jan Mckay, Kit Sinclair, Kam Yuet Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

186 Citations (Scopus)


Where courses have as an aim the promotion of reflective practice, it will enhance the achievement of the goal if the level of reflective thinking is assessed. To do this in a satisfactory way requires a reliable protocol for assessing the level of reflection in written work. This article presents a protocol that can be used to guide the allocation of work to four categories, namely: habitual action/non-reflection, understanding, reflection, and critical reflection. Intermediate categories can also be used. Detailed descriptors of each category to guide the process are provided. The protocol was tested by four assessors independently using it to grade a set of written work, and very good agreement was obtained.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)369-379
Number of pages11
JournalAssessment and Evaluation in Higher Education
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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