A Formative Approach to Modeling Residents’ Perceived Impacts of Casino Development

Lawrence Hoc Nang Fong, Davis Ka Chio Fong, Chun Hung Roberts Law

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


This study uses a formative modeling approach rather than the more common reflective modeling approach to operationalize residents’ perceived benefits/costs. Partial least square structural equation modeling was adopted to model the predicting effects of perceived benefits/costs on residents’ support for casino development. Additionally, the mediating role of satisfaction with life was examined. Drawing from a survey administered to 1047 Macao residents, this study reveals that only perceived economic and environmental benefits affect support for casino development. The mediating effect is not confirmed. Meaningful implications are provided for policymakers and casino operators.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1181-1194
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Travel and Tourism Marketing
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 12 Oct 2016


  • Casino impact
  • formative measure
  • gaming
  • partial least square
  • social exchange theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Marketing


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