A nonlinear finite element model was developed to investigate the manner of the load transfer between the above-knee residual limb and its prosthetic socket. The model was two-dimensional (2-D) with consideration of nonlinear boundary conditions and large deformation. Interface elements were used to simulate the friction/slip conditions between skin and the socket. Different distal-end conditions, including air cushion distal-end loading, were simulated to explore their influences on the load transfer.
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