A Deep-Ensemble-Level-Based Interpretable Takagi-Sugeno-Kang Fuzzy Classifier for Imbalanced Data

Guanjin Wang, Ta Zhou, Kup Sze Choi, Jie Lu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)


Existing research reveals that the misclassification rate for imbalanced data depends heavily on the problematic areas due to the existence of small disjoints, class overlap, borderline, and rare data samples. In this study, by stacking zero-order Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy subclassifiers on the minority class and its problematic areas in the deep ensemble, a novel deep-ensemble-level-based TSK fuzzy classifier (IDE-TSK-FC) for imbalanced data classification tasks is presented to achieve both promising classification performance and high interpretability of zero-order TSK fuzzy classifiers. Simultaneously, according to the stacked generalization principle, the proposed classifier lifts up oversampling from the data level to the deep ensemble level with a guarantee of enhanced generalization capability for class imbalance learning. In the structure of IDE-TSK-FC, the first interpretable zero-order TSK fuzzy subclassifier is built on the original training dataset. After that, several successive zero-order TSK fuzzy subclassifiers are stacked layer by layer on the newly identified problematic areas from the original training dataset plus the corresponding interpretable predictions obtained by the averaging strategy on all previous layers. IDE-TSK-FC simply takes the classical K -nearest neighboring algorithm at each layer to identify its problematic area that consists of the minority samples and its surrounding K majority neighbors. After randomly neglecting certain input features and randomly selecting the five Gaussian membership functions for all the chosen input features and the augmented feature in the premise of each fuzzy rule, each subclassifier can be quickly obtained by using the least learning machine to determine the consequent part of each fuzzy rule. The experimental results on both the public datasets and a real-world healthcare dataset demonstrate IDE-TSK-FC's superiority in class imbalanced learning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3805-3818
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2022


  • Deep ensemble learning
  • fuzzy classifiers
  • imbalance learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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