A database of static clothing thermal insulation and vapor permeability values of non-Western ensembles for use in ASHRAE Standard 55, ISO 7730, and ISO 9920

George Havenith, Kalev Kuklane, Jintu Fan, Simon Hodder, Yacine Ouzzahra, Karin Lundgren, Yuhan Au, Dennis Loveday

Research output: Journal article publicationConference articleAcademic researchpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Four different thermal manikins (male and female shapes) in three different laboratories (UK, Sweden, and China) were used to determine the clothing thermal insulation values of 52 non-Western, mainly indoor clothing ensembles in order to expand the existing clothing database for use with ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2013, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy (ASHRAE 2013a), ISO Standard 7730-2005, Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment - Analytical Determination and Interpretation of Thermal Comfort Using Calculation of the PMV and PPD Indices and Local Thermal Comfort Criteria (ISO 2005), and ISO Standard 9920-2009, Ergonomics of the Thermal Environment - Estimation of Thermal Insulation and Water Vapour Resistance of a Clothing Ensemble (ISO 2009). Insulation values varied over manikins, which is attributed to their different shapes and the different fit of the clothing. The mean value over three manikins is reported (with standard deviation) to include this potential real-life variation in the results. The relation of the clothing surface area factor to intrinsic clothing insulation was found to be different from that published for Western clothing. Prediction equations for the clothing surface area factor fcl based on the new data had only limited predictive power, which, however, was also the case for those obtained in the past for Western clothing. This issue seems to be commonly overlooked, as the use of these prediction equations is widespread. It has to be concluded that reliable fcl values can only be obtained when they are actually measured, as in the present work. However, we suggest that the concept of the fcl factor for the non-Western clothing may not be appropriate and may require further attention in research, as wide-falling-robes and gowns do not match the cylindrical clothing and air layer model on which the fcl concept is based. In summary, the results provide an extensive database of insulation values of non-Western clothing that is expected to be a valuable addition to ASHRAE Standard 55-2013 (ASHRAE 2013a), ISO Standard 7730-2005 (ISO 2005), and ISO Standard 9920-2009 (ISO 2009).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)197-215
Number of pages19
JournalASHRAE Conference-Papers
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes
Event2015 ASHRAE Winter Conference - Chicago, United States
Duration: 24 Jan 201528 Jan 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Mechanical Engineering


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