A critical investigation of the bargaining behavior of tourists: The case of Hong Kong open-air markets

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Shopping has long been recognized as an indispensable tourist activity. Hong Kong's open-air markets, where a multitude of bargaining activities can be observed, ranked as the second most popular of the island territory's diverse range of attractions in 2008 in terms of tourist arrivals. To develop cutting-edge marketing strategies that promote tourists' enjoyment of their bargaining adventure and ultimately enhance the overall shopping experience, the study reported in this article was aimed at identifying the dimensions underlying tourists' perceptions of the importance of 18 bargaining motivators and 12 bargaining attitudes and types of bargaining behavior, respectively, and subsequently evaluating the predictability of these underlying dimensions on tourists' shopping contentment indicators (overall bargaining satisfaction, the likelihood of a subsequent visit, and the likelihood of recommending open-air markets to others). A non-probability quota sampling technique was used to survey 203 Asian and non-Asian tourists in Hong Kong. A multivariate approach encompassing factor analysis and multiple regression was employed: Factor analysis delineated four underlying dimensions of factors affecting bargaining intentions. "Value for money" was shown to be the factor rated most important to tourists' bargaining intention; similarly, two underlying dimensions of bargaining attitudes and behavior-"bargain for psychological well-being" and "bargaining intensity"-were identified. Multiple regression results indicated the statistical significance of "bargaining for psychological well-being" and "bargaining intensity" to the existence of positive relations between shopping contentment indicators.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-47
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Travel and Tourism Marketing
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2011


  • Bargaining behavior
  • Motivation
  • Open-air market
  • Shopping
  • Tourists' satisfaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Marketing


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