A Continuum Model for Housing Allocation and Transportation Emission Problems in a Polycentric City

Jun Yin, S. C. Wong, Nang Ngai Sze, H. W. Ho

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


The effect of vehicle emissions on the global climate has prompted increasing concern in the past few decades. Housing development patterns determine people's travel behavior and related vehicle emissions. In this study, we consider a hypothetical city with several central business districts (CBDs) serving several classes of road users, which are continuously distributed over the city. The road network is relatively dense and can be approximated as a continuum. We establish a bi-level model to describe the relationships among housing allocation, traffic volume, and CO2emissions with a continuum modeling approach. At the lower level, the model achieves the user equilibrium condition of a transport system. At the upper level, it optimizes housing allocation to achieve minimum CO2emissions. The finite element method, Newton-Raphson algorithm, and convex combination approach are applied to solve the constrained optimization problem established in the bi-level model. A numerical example is then given to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed bi-level approach and solution algorithm in modeling transport demand, traffic intensity, and CO2emissions with an optimized housing development pattern.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-298
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Transportation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2013


  • bi-level programming
  • continuum modeling
  • finite element method
  • housing allocation pattern
  • transport emission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Automotive Engineering
  • Transportation


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