A Comprehensive Survey of Blockchain: From Theory to IoT Applications and beyond

Mingli Wu, Kun Wang, Xiaoqin Cai, Song Guo, Minyi Guo, Chunming Rong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

186 Citations (Scopus)


As an innovated and revolutionized technology, blockchain has been applied in many fields, such as cryptocurrency, food traceability, identity management, or even market prediction. To discover its great potential, both industry and academia have paid great attention to it and numerous researches have been conducted. Based on the literature and industry whitepapers, in this survey, we unroll and structure the blockchain related discoveries and scientific results in many aspects. Particularly, we classify blockchain technologies into four layers and carry out a comprehensive study on the consensus strategies, the network, and the applications of blockchain. Different blockchain applications are put into the corresponding categories based on the fields, especially in Internet of Things (IoT). When introducing each layer, we not only organize and summarize the related works, but also discuss the fundamental issues and future research directions. We hope this survey could shed some light on the research of blockchain and serve as a guide for further studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8735815
Pages (from-to)8114-8154
Number of pages41
JournalIEEE Internet of Things Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2019


  • Anonymity
  • application
  • attacks
  • blockchain
  • consensus algorithms
  • extension
  • Internet of Things (IoT)
  • P2P network
  • scalability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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