A casino-induced satisfaction of needs: scale development and its relationship with casino customer loyalty

Ming Chih Tsai, Cathy Hui-chun Hsu, Louisa Yee Sum Lee

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, this study develops a five-factor casino-induced satisfaction-of-needs scale and examines its relationship with casino customer loyalty using Macau as a study context. The findings show that the respondents’ most visited casinos had only marginally met the respondents’ various inner needs; there is still ample room for Macau casinos to improve the level of their customers’ satisfaction regarding customers’ inner needs. Among the five types of inner needs, self-actualization appears to be one need that requires more attention than the others because it was rated as the need that was the least satisfied but contributed the second most to measuring satisfaction. Additionally, Macau casinos should continue their efforts to improve and maintain a safe and secure casino environment, coupled with providing a variety of quality foods and beverages, for their customers. Lastly, safety and security, self-actualization and physiological needs were found to positively affect casino customer loyalty.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)986-1000
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Travel and Tourism Marketing
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2 Sep 2017


  • casino
  • customer loyalty
  • Customer satisfaction
  • induced needs
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Marketing

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