A bi-objective user equilibrium model of travel time reliability in a road network

Judith Y.T. Wang, Matthias Ehrgott, Anthony Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

71 Citations (Scopus)


Travel time, travel time reliability and monetary cost have been empirically identified as the most important criteria influencing route choice behaviour. We concentrate on travel time and travel time reliability and review two prominent user equilibrium models incorporating these two factors. We discuss some shortcomings of these models and propose alternative bi-objective user equilibrium models that overcome the shortcomings. Finally, based on the observation that both models use standard deviation of travel time within their measure of travel time reliability, we propose a general travel time reliability bi-objective user equilibrium model. We prove that this model encompasses those discussed previously and hence forms a general framework for the study of reliability related user equilibrium. We demonstrate and validate our concepts on a small three-link example.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4-15
Number of pages12
JournalTransportation Research Part B: Methodological
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Bi-objective user equilibrium
  • Late arrival penalty
  • Route choice
  • Travel time budget
  • Travel time reliability
  • User equilibrium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transportation
  • Management Science and Operations Research


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