A bi-level programming approach - Optimal transit fare under line capacity constraints

J. Zhou, Hing Keung William Lam

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


The fare of a transit line is one of the important decision variables for transit network design. It has been advocated as an efficient means of coordinating the transit passenger flows and of alleviating congestion in the transit network. This paper shows how transit fare can be optimized so as to balance the passenger flow on the transit network and to reduce the overload delays of passengers at transit stops. A bi-level programming method is developed to optimize the transit fare under line capacity constraints. The upper-level problem seeks to minimize the total network travel time, while the lower-level problem is a stochastic user equilibrium transit assignment model with line capacity constraints. A heuristic solution algorithm based on sensitivity analysis is proposed. Numerical example is used to illustrate the application of the proposed model and solution algorithm.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-124
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Advanced Transportation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Strategy and Management


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