4D Bioprinting for Biomedical Applications

Bin Gao, Qingzhen Yang, Xin Zhao, Guorui Jin, Yufei Ma, Feng Xu

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

305 Citations (Scopus)


However, placing biocompatible materials or cells into direct contact via bioprinting is necessary but insufficient for creating these constructs. Therefore, ‘4D bioprinting’ has emerged recently, where ‘time’ is integrated with 3D bioprinting as the fourth dimension, and the printed objects can change their shapes or functionalities when an external stimulus is imposed or when cell fusion or postprinting self-assembly occurs. In this review, we highlight recent developments in 4D bioprinting technology. Additionally, we review the uses of 4D bioprinting in tissue engineering and drug delivery. Finally, we discuss the major roadblocks to this approach, together with possible solutions, to provide future perspectives on this technology.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)746-756
Number of pages11
JournalTrends in Biotechnology
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2016
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering

Cite this