3D Mapping Database Aided GNSS Based Collaborative Positioning Using Factor Graph Optimization

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


The recent development in vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication opens a new opportunity to improve the positioning performance of the road users. We explore the benefit of connecting the raw data of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) from the agents. In urban areas, GNSS positioning is highly degraded due to signal blockage and reflection. 3D building model can play a major role in mitigating the GNSS multipath and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) effects. To combine the benefits of 3D models and V2X, we propose a novel 3D mapping aided (3DMA) GNSS-based collaborative positioning method that makes use of the available surrounding GNSS receivers' measurements. By complementarily integrating the ray-tracing based 3DMA GNSS and the double difference technique, the random errors (such as multipath and NLOS) are mitigated while eliminating the systematic errors (such as atmospheric delay and satellite clock/orbit biases) between road user. To improve the accuracy and robustness of the collaborative algorithm, factor graph optimization (FGO) is employed to optimize the positioning solutions among agents. Multiple low-cost GNSS receivers are used to collect both static and dynamic data in Hong Kong and to evaluate the proposed algorithm by post-processing. We reduce the GNSS positioning error from over 30 meters to less than 10 meters for road users in a deep urban canyon.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6175-6187
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021


  • 3D building model
  • collaborative positioning
  • GNSS
  • NLOS
  • ray-tracing
  • urban canyon
  • V2X

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications


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