3D foot shape generation from 2D information

Ameersing Luximon, Ravindra S. Goonetilleke, Ming Zhang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


Two methods to generate an individual 3D foot shape from 2D information are proposed. A standard foot shape was first generated and then scaled based on known 2D information. In the first method, the foot outline and the foot height were used, and in the second, the foot outline and the foot profile were used. The models were developed using 40 participants and then validated using a different set of 40 participants. Results show that each individual foot shape can be predicted within a mean absolute error of 1.36 mm for the left foot and 1.37 mm for the right foot using the first method, and within a mean absolute error of 1.02 min for the left foot and 1.02 mm for the right foot using the second method. The second method shows somewhat improved accuracy even though it requires two images. Both the methods are relatively cheaper than using a scanner to determine the 3D foot shape for custom footwear design.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)625-641
Number of pages17
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2005


  • Fitting
  • Foot outline
  • Foot shape modeling
  • Footwear
  • Mass customization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Psychology(all)
  • Applied Psychology

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