3D building model-based pedestrian positioning method using GPS/GLONASS/QZSS and its reliability calculation

Li Ta Hsu, Yanlei Gu, Shunsuke Kamijo

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

175 Citations (Scopus)


The current low-cost global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) receiver cannot calculate satisfactory positioning results for pedestrian applications in urban areas with dense buildings due to multipath and non-line-of-sight effects. We develop a rectified positioning method using a basic three-dimensional city building model and ray-tracing simulation to mitigate the signal reflection effects. This proposed method is achieved by implementing a particle filter to distribute possible position candidates. The likelihood of each candidate is evaluated based on the similarity between the pseudorange measurement and simulated pseudorange of the candidate. Finally, the expectation of all the candidates is the rectified positioning of the proposed map method. The proposed method will serve as one sensor of an integrated system in the future. For this purpose, we successfully define a positioning accuracy based on the distribution of the candidates and their pseudorange similarity. The real data are recorded at an urban canyon environment in the Chiyoda district of Tokyo using a commercial grade u-blox GNSS receiver. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. With the aid of GLONASS and QZSS, it is shown that the proposed method can achieve a 4.4-m 1σ positioning error in the tested urban canyon area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-428
Number of pages16
JournalGPS Solutions
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D building model
  • Multipath
  • NLOS
  • Pedestrian
  • Ray-tracing
  • Urban canyon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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