The continuous development of electron devices towards the trend of "More than Moore" requires functional diversification that can collect data (sensors) and store (memories) and process (computing units) information. Considering the large occupation proportion of image data in both data center and edge devices, a device integration with optical sensing and data storage and processing is highly demanded for future energy-efficient and miniaturized electronic system. Two-dimensional (2D) materials and their heterostructures have exhibited broadband photoresponse and high photoresponsivity in the configuration of optical sensors and showed fast switching speed,multi-bit data storage, and large ON/OFF ratio inmemory devices. In addition, its ultrathin body thickness and transfer process at low temperature allow 2D materials to be heterogeneously integrated with other existingmaterials system. In this paper, we overview the state-of-the-art optoelectronic random-access memories (ORAMs) based on 2D materials, as well as ORAM synaptic devices and their applications in neural network and image processing.The ORAM devices potentially enable direct storage/processing of sensory data fromexternal environment.We also provide perspectives on possible directions of other neuromorphic sensor design (e.g., auditory and olfactory) based on 2D materials towards the future smart electronic systems for artificial intelligence.
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