Stacking perovskite solar cells onto crystalline silicon bottom cells in a monolithic tandem configuration enables power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) well above those of their single-junction counterparts. However, state-of-the-art wide-band-gap perovskite films suffer from phase stability issues. Here, we show how carbazole as an additive to the perovskite precursor solution can not only reduce nonradiative recombination losses but, perhaps more importantly, also can suppress phase segregation under exposure to moisture and light illumination. This enables a stabilized PCE of 28.6% (independently certified at 28.2%) for a monolithic perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell over ∼1 cm2 and 27.1% over 3.8 cm2, built from a textured silicon heterojunction solar cell. The modified tandem devices retain ∼93% of their performance over 43 days in a hot and humid outdoor environment of almost 100% relative humidity over 250 h under continuous 1-sun illumination and about 87% during a 85/85 damp-heat test for 500 h, demonstrating the improved phase stability.
- phase stability
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