The scholars were named in the “Updated science-wide author databases of standardized citation indicators” compiled by Stanford University. A research team, led by Professor John Ioannidis, created the database of more than 100,000 top scientists across the world on the basis of standardized citation indicators. They were grouped into 22 subject fields and 176 sub-fields using the indicators. The indicators included information on citations, an individual’s scientific research output, co-authorship and a composite indicator for career-long citation impact up to the end of 2020. The latest dataset is based on the 1 August 2021 snapshot from Scopus.